DeLand, L., Strongin, D. L., Schwartz, R. C. (2006) The Development Of A Personality Scale Based On The Internal Family Systems Model. Journal Of Self Leadership, 2(1), 1-14.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a new measure based on the Internal Family Systems (IFS) model that would be useful for clinical and research purposes.  Adults from a variety of settings (N = 1174) volunteered to rate how frequently they experienced various thoughts and feelings on a self-report questionnaire.  Cronbach’s alpha, Pearson product-moment correlations, partial correlations, and factor analysis were used to examine the internal reliability and construct validity of the scale.  A 57-item IFS Scale with 10 subscales and a 25-item Self Scale were developed.  Both of the measures were found to have adequate internal reliability and to reflect meaningful group differences consistent with IFS theory.

DeLand, L. (Winter 2003/2004) The Quest. Self To Self Newsletter 9(1) 

This article describes the development of the IFS SCALE in the language of a mythical quest.

Research Using The IFS Scale

Martin, Neil P., “Aspects of the Self and Psychological Outcomes” (2014). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 1163.


Depression ranks among the top health concerns on college campuses and impairs students’ functioning across numerous domains including academic, social, and personal areas, and there is still an urgent need for a model that can provide comprehensive understanding of the development and treatment of depression.. The Internal Family Systems (IFS) model is introduced to bridge this gap. The current study aimed to make contributions to mental health literature by advancing our understanding of IFS theory (specifically, the concept of Self) in predicting depression, providing a framework for promoting a non-pathological model of depression, and adding to the body of empirical IFS research. Data were collected from a sample of college students at Georgia Southern University and the Savannah College of Art and Design (SCAD) via an online survey. Students completed the IFS Scale and the 10-item Center for Epidemiology Depression Scale (CES-D 10). A significant, inverse correlation was found between the Self variable and depression outcomes. In addition, a stepwise regression was performed in which Dissociating, Self-Critical, Anxious/Pessimistic, Addictive/Impulsive, and Raging Protectors were found to contribute the most unique variance to depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis was then conducted and identified three types of the previously mentioned Protectors as significantly mediating the relationship between Self and depression. Implications for IFS theory as well as direct clinical applications are discussed. 

Fitzgerald, M. (2021). Cool, Calm, and Collected: The Associations Between Self-Leadership and Adult Mental and Relational Health Outcomes. The American Journal of Family Therapy (Online).

Fitzgerald, M., & Barton, C. (2021). Self-Qualities and Self-Leadership as Pathways Linking Childhood Maltreatment to Depression and Relationship Quality. Contemporary Family Therapy.